CPU Full Form – Central Processing Unit and basic details

CPU Full Form – Central Processing Unit and basic details

CPU Full Form in Computer

The full form of CPU is Central Processing Unit. CPU is called a chip inside the computer, which is a main processing unit of a computer. From desktop computers, laptops, tablets, smartphones, medical devices and modern cars to almost most of the electronic and electrical devices used in our daily lives, all types of electronic devices operate using CPUs.

Central processing unit has many names such as processor, microprocessor, central processor and computer brain. Sometimes you may have noticed that a computer and a hard drive are sometimes referred to as a central processing unit (CPU), which is definitely wrong as these parts perform completely separate functions and are similar to a central processing unit. are not.

What is CPU?

You must have heard about different parts of computer like Ram, Motherboard, HDD, GPU, CPU etc. In these, the CPU is a very important part of the computer. CPU is the most important device of the computer. CPU is the heart and brain of any computer . CPU is also known as microprocessor. The computer processes the input data in the CPU.
It is made up of ALU, CU and memory. CPU is like an electronic chip. In this all the software of the computer is installed. Without a CPU, your computer will not respond to any activity. Intel and AMD are the most well-known companies that make CPUs for desktop computers, laptops, and Internet servers, while Apple, NVIDIA, and Qualcomm are the most popular manufacturers of computers and CPUs for smartphones and tablets.

What are the functions of CPU in a computer?

  • Most of the processing in the computer is controlled by this unit. The CPU of a computer handles all the instructions from the hardware and software.
  • Just as all the work done by our body is done by our brain, in the same way CPU is also called brain or heart of computer.
  • The work of all parts of the computer is controlled by the CPU itself.
  • The CPU of a computer handles all the instructions that it receives from the computer’s hardware such as keyboard, mouse, printer or any software program.
  • After this the CPU calculates according to its program and then shows its output like any information on the monitor.
  • A CPU can also have more than one Processing Core. If a CPU can process only one set of instructions at a time, then it is called Single-Core Processor.
  • CPUs that come with two processing cores are called dual-core CPUs and CPUs with four cores are called quad-core CPUs. There are also CPUs with more cores than this, which are used for better performance.
  • The faster the CPU or processor of a computer or device, the more easily and faster a program can run on the computer.

Where is the CPU installed in the computer?

The CPU is installed inside the computer on the motherboard. The CPU of today’s computer or PC is square shaped and small, it consists of many small pins or connectors made of metal, which are connected by fitting into the CPU socket on the motherboard.

  • Any motherboard supports one type of CPU, that is, different types of CPUs are also seen in different types of motherboards with different specifications.
  • Processors or CPUs generate heat, due to which they are covered with a heat sink to keep them cool so that it can run smoothly. Apart from this, a fan is also given in the computer to keep the CPU cool.
  • Apart from the computer, other devices or electronic systems also have CPU usage.
  • Apart from any computer system, CPU is also there in Smart Phone, Smart watch, Smart TV, Mobile phone, Tablet, Gaming console, Multimedia device, Car etc.

Also Read: What is electronics

What are the components of CPU?

There are lot of changes in the CPU in all time and cpu redesign with advance technology, but these are some of the basic components of all types of CPUs.

Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

It is the part of CPU that helps in data handling. Through Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), we can do fundamental arithmetic operations (such as +, -, *,/,), logical operations (such as OR, AND, NOT, etc.) and comparison operations (such as =,<,>, etc.) can.
If we know in easy language, then through ALU we do addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, matching data etc. on our computer. It is called numeral mathematical logical unit.

Control Unit

Control unit is called ‘control unit’ and It controls all the functions (such as – input, output, storage, and process) of the computer.


Memory is an essential component of the computer. To store computer programs through memory can be stored. There are two types of computer memory.

  •  Primary Memory
  • Secondary Memory

What is the importance of CPU?

Although the CPU is not as important to overall system performance as it used to be, it still plays a major role in keeping the machine running quickly as it is solely responsible for executing commands within the program; The faster the CPU, the faster many applications will run.

However, a fast CPU isn’t everything. The processor, no matter how powerful, cannot run the latest 3D games smoothly, nor can it store information. This is where other components, such as the graphics card and memory, come into play.

How does CPU work?

The CPU takes instructions from a program or application and performs a computational operation. This process can be divided into three main steps: receiving, disassembling and executing. The CPU receives instructions from the RAM, decodes the instructions, and then executes those instructions using other parts of the CPU.

What is the size of the CPU and where is it located?

Newer model CPUs are usually quad core and compact and have many small, metal electrodes that are under the CPU. Whereas most older CPUs have metal pins instead of metal electrodes.

The CPU sits directly in its own socket on the motherboard and is installed at the bottom of the board.

After turning on the CPU, it heats up quickly, causing damage, and to reduce this heat, the unit is connected directly to a special cooler and fan. These parts usually come with the CPU when purchased, and there are now more advanced cooling options such as a water-cooling unit.

What is processor speed?

The speed of a processor is measured in hertz, which is the number of instructions processed per second. As an example, we have a 1Hz CPU which means it can process one bit of instructions per second. As another example in real life, a processor with a speed of 3 GHz can process 3 billion instructions per second.

What is CPU Core?

At the beginning of the creation of CPUs, they contained a single core, but today CPUs have multiple cores that allow them to perform multiple instructions at once; Such as dinuclear, tetranuclear, hexanuclear and octahedral. Some processors use a technique known as multi-threading which creates an additional virtual core to help improve the performance of the processor.

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Also Read: What is Computer/PC


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