What is Artificial Intelligence and beginnings of AI

What is Artificial Intelligence and beginnings of AI

It is not easy to clarify what artificial intelligence is. In fact, we are not even clear when it comes to clarifying what intelligence is.

what is artificial intelligence

Many definitions have been offered in recent times, but one of the most popular is that of Robert Sternberg , a psychologist at Yale University. This scholar defines intelligence as the mental process that helps us adapt or change our environment based on our personal needs.

Artificial intelligence is possibly the scientific discipline with the most potential in recent decades. One of the best-known personalities in this discipline.

Types of Artificial intelligence

Intelligence is made up of 3 different types of intelligence (although this is also open to interpretation and suggestion):

Componential intelligence (or an individual’s ability to analyze):

refers to the conscious direction of our mental processes to analyze and evaluate ideas , solve problems and make decisions. In short, it is the type of classical intelligence that tests analyze, that is, what is generally known as intelligence in general.

Experiential intelligence (or creativity):

the ability of individuals to tackle new tasks, formulate new ideas, and combine past experiences. It is the emotional or creative intelligence, typical of artists and content creators. It is the intelligence of eccentric people who do not usually do what everyone else does, resilient people, who have a lot of tolerance for constant changes (we could even say that they live happily with them or, even more, that they constantly need them to develop their day daily normally).

Practical or contextual intelligence (or the ability to adapt to the environment):

adaptation, selection or modification of the individual environment. We could say that this is the most important type of intelligence (although it depends on the other two above), since your vital success or failure will depend on it. Each person has a vital project in their existence, a series of objectives to pursue.

Someone would be very intelligent if they knew how to adapt very well to their reality in order to achieve them, even choosing well which environments are the most suitable for it or, to top it off, creating new environments according to their purposes.

  • Starting from this acceptance of intelligence and these different types that we can find, we could define artificial intelligence, but the fact is that its scope has made it possible for a long time to also differentiate between the so-called strong, general and weak artificial intelligences.
  • Very briefly. Strong AI is a computer system that is as intelligent as a human being, while general AI is capable of performing any intellectual task that a human can do. Weak AI, on the other hand, is only capable of performing specific tasks.

The beginnings of artificial intelligence

The first attempts to define AI came from a man named Alan Turing, the father of computer science, although he avoided answering this question. His contribution was a test, which tried to determine if “something” had artificial intelligence or not. This is how the Turing Test was born, which for many current experts does not fully define this concept.

History of Artificial Intelligence

  • In 1956, Allen Newell, Herbert Simon, Marvin Minsky, Arthur Samuel, and John McCarthy met at Dartmouth College , concluding that finally developing artificial intelligence and giving machines the ability to think would be easy.
  • Ramón López de Mántaras, Professor of Artificial Intelligence at the CSIC and author of the book ‘ What do we know about artificial intelligence? ‘ pointed out that this group of eminent, were enormously optimistic.
  • In the late 1950s and early 1960s, artificial intelligence lived through a splendid era in which machines played checkers better than humans, solved algebraic and logical problems, and even learned to speak languages ​​in a short time.

investments Artificial Intelligence

The investment in projects was enormous, and the creators of the discipline believed that this challenge would soon be overcome. Herbert Simon dared to predict that in 20 years the machines would be capable of doing any job, while Minsky (American scientist considered one of the fathers of AI and co-founder of the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)) , went on to state that “the problem of creating artificial intelligence will be substantially solved in this generation ”.

But we already know how this always ends. Even the brightest minds make mistakes. Despite these advances, the challenges of this artificial intelligence comparable to the natural intelligence of human beings were difficult to achieve. The inordinate optimism of the 1950s and 1960s was followed by a cold winter that paralyzed sources of investment and research for years.

And the most curious of all is that those who continued to work in this technical-scientific discipline could not agree on the definition of artificial intelligence.

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